IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALS AND BARRIERS OF PUBLICPRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS IN EGYPT

L. M. KHODEIR

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 4, August 2019, Pages 379–402


Egypt is facing a huge financial problem reflected on the difficulty of funding public projects either in construction and infrastructure sectors. One of the approaches for such problem is to work cooperatively with private sectors in the form of PublicPrivate Partnership Projects (PPP). This approach, however, is facing a number of challenges. This paper, thus, aims at providing a factor analysis for the establishment of PPP in Egypt through extracting lessons learned in other countries. A literature review has been done to analyze existing factors, followed by a qualitative study of case studies. Finally, a survey questionnaire was conducted on a purposeful sample of 55 stakeholders, either from private or public sectors in order to prioritize and verify factors affecting the success or failure of PPP projects in terms of their severity and impact in Egypt. Results of this paper indicated that bureaucracy, corruption, poor enabling policies and inefficient feasibility studies are among the major barriers that face PPP in Egypt, whereas achieving a reliable contractual structure and political support are the main potentials. Findings of this paper are valuable to stakeholders, decision makers and policy makers in Egypt, as it could guide their thinking towards achieving successful PPP Projects.



ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS ON HUMAN BEINGS IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

N. S. ELRAFIE, G. F. HASSAN, A. S. ABD ELRAHMAN and M. A. ELFAYOUMI

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 4, August 2019, Pages 403–427


Our earth is a living body that has energy veins flowing all over, just like the human body where blood flows from and to the heart. These natural earth energies are as old as the earth existence and interact with everything on its surface. They were believed to have either a healing effect in “Power Spots” or a stressful effect in “Geopathic Stress Zones” that can change the normal functioning of human beings and damage their health. Thousands of years ago, these energies’ effects were considered during designing the built environment. This no longer takes place although recent research discovered that the urban ambiance is badly affected by electromagnetic radiation from different sources. Moreover, one of the main objectives of urban design is bringing to the user a sense of wellbeing and emotional satisfaction. The paper argues that respecting the natural earth energies during the design process will affect the wellbeing of the users. Consequently, the paper undergoes an exploratory process through a survey in Al-Sultan Hassan mosque using observations and a structured questionnaire to investigate this relationship. The survey confirmed that following the earth energy grids in the design affects the visitors positively and enhances their abilities and wellbeing.



SUSTAINABILITY BETWEEN URBAN HERITAGE AND TOURISM DEVELOPMENT BY PARTICIPATION IN AL-QASR

A. Y. ESMAIL

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 4, August 2019, Pages 429–450


One of the most important problems that concern those interested in heritage is the deterioration of urban and architectural heritage in many Egyptian villages and cities. This problem is due to the rapid urbanization in Egypt which causes local and regional changes that have bad impact on the urban heritage. It is necessary to preserve the historical heritage because of its national wealth and its historical, cultural, economic and social values. Dealing with these heritage areas should achieve the balance between preserving the urban and architectural heritage and the developing sustainable tourism in these areas. One of the most important methods of sustainable development of these heritage areas is the community participation in the development projects. Therefore, the study aims to define urban and architectural heritage and conservation. It also aims to identify the role of the community participation in the different stages of conservation. It also aims to define the sustainable tourism development, its strategies and its relation with the heritage areas. The study analysis local and international examples of heritage areas to identify the most important problems and their solutions. The study ends up with conclusions and recommendations and a suggestion on sustainable tourism development of heritage areas.



INFILL DESIGN IN HERITAGE SITES STUDY OF EXPERTS’ PREFERENCES AND ATTITUDES

Z. F. ABDEL-KADER

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 4, August 2019, Pages 451–463


Heritage sites represent the memory of the society, its culture and history, as well as the multiplicity of values, whether cultural, social, social, occupational or otherwise. Preservation of the integrity of the visual image of the heritage sites is one of the most challenges that face the urban designer to preserve the identity of the place. There are many influences and innovations that may affect this image including infill buildings that are built or added in these sites. The research questions how the infill design interact with the heritage context. The architects and urban designers differ in their visions and attitudes dealing with this issue, where some believe that fruitful interaction achieved through the integration of new buildings with the context, and others believe that the priority of infill design is to respond to its own time as architecture must always reflect its period. Therefore, the study aims at analysing some examples of buildings that were added in heritage sites that show the extent of the variation in the approach to dealing with the heritage context, beginning with the literal transfer of traditional architectural vocabulary through abstraction and simplification to the total contradiction with the context.



AN ANALYSIS OF “FREE SPACE” BETWEEN RE-PRESENTATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN VENICE BIENNALE

M. M. EL-HUSSEINY

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 4, August 2019, Pages 465–489


The bi-annual architectural event of Venice Biennale has been regarded as an international melting pot for various international visions and concepts. The current year’s theme for the Biennale, “FREESPACE” curated by Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara raises several questions related to the necessity of re-presenting “space”, how the different national pavilions reacted to the chosen theme, and how the pavilions of the Middle East specifically represented the issue of space. Thus, the paper will discuss the history of inauguration of the Architecture Biennale in Venice based on a literature review to reflect on the importance of the event. Following that, the theme of the cycle in 2018 will be analyzed based on two-fold streams, first is the main discussion introduced by the curators and second is the re-presentation of a selected number of national pavilions. A second discussion of literature will be presented to discuss the main concepts and philosophical debates, for instance: the quality of space, the generosity of architecture, humanity and architecture, celebrations of nature. Finally, analysis will be conducted on the work displayed in pavilions of Middle Eastern countries in order to re-question the position of our local definition of cultural production and the re-presentation of space.



READING INTENTION AND IN BETWEEN THE LINES ACROSS THREE CYCLES OF VENICE ARCHITECTURE BINNALE

K. E. KESSEIBA

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages 265–286


The Architecture Biennale held in Venice has been declared by renowned architects and theorists to be one of the most acknowledged architectural events. The bi-annual architectural event attracts more than sixty countries to display under a main theme selected by the curator. Similar to an architectural pedagogical approach, countries compete through national pavilions to illustrate the best to exhibit. This latent competition deduces the latest “Architectural Movement” being promoted. During the past three cycles, the themes were; “Fundamentals”, 2014 by Rem Koolhas, “Reporting from the Front”, 2016 by Alejandro Aravena, and last “Freespace” by Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara. Based on cross-reading of the themes of the three cycles, the work displayed in the main pavilions and selected national pavilions, the paper aims to read between the lines for the Movement or Trend advocated as a “Meaning” for Architecture in the current and upcoming era. The paper questions whether this era is the era of philosophy re-addressing in Architecture instead of perceiving it as a tool to reach better living conditions. The methodology will be based on observations from the three cycles then literature re-view will be addressed to the themes. Finally, crossanalysis between selected national pavilions will be conducted.



OLYMPIC GAMES A SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR HOST LOCATION

N. M. HANAFI and S. A. GAMMAZ

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages 287–311


Through decades, Olympic Games have become the most spectacular public culture event in modern days. Every four years the Games capture our attention to a grand festive that fascinates millions of people. Accordingly, when a city decides to make a bid, all its concerns is much more captivated by the urban transformation impact on the city whether it's a positive or a negative one. As a result, several factors, if not well-organized and taken into consideration in the strategic development plans of the host cities, may be a burden on the city. Site selection for the event is considered one of the main critical decisions to assure the possibility of the host of the Games by the city. Therefore, this paper reviews several case studies that proved its success in location choice under the delivery of sustainable urban design and strategic planning for the host city. It attempts to mention the main urban design elements affected by the preparation process. Consequently, an urban design sustainable assessment will be developed highlighting both the main urban design factors affected due to the host of the Olympic Games and, the main sustainable key factors affected by the urban changes on site.



GENTRIFICATION OF VERNACULAR MATERIALS AS A KEY TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

R. A. MAHMOUD and R. O. RASHED

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages 313–328


Earth and Stone are prime materials that were at the origins of construction. Since the dawn of humanity, these vernacular materials have been at the base of architecture and the act of building in general. It is through them, that architecture has begun to take shape. Moreover, these materials have always been favored by the builders in hot countries because they are simply the most adaptable to their climate. Nevertheless, since the advent of cement, followed by concrete that allowed for more daring achievements up to architects' expectations, these vernacular materials have been rarely used or have become marginalized in architecture. They even became symbols of heritage, anti-modernist era and sometimes of social categorization. We believe that gentrifying these materials, by using them in a more modern efficient and effective way, will allow them to regain their place in the architectural arena. Furthermore, they will be accepted by upper social classes as they will offer modern architectural solutions by using clean recyclable materials with a minimum of energy expenditure. This paper aims to demonstrate the particularity of these vernacular materials and how their gentrification can be a key towards achieving a sustainable built environment.



REBRANDING CAIRO’S DOWNTOWN CINEMAS: CAN PERFORMANCES RESURRECT ABUNDANT HERITAGE?

S. S. ASHOUR

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages 329–353


Cairo’s Downtown cinemas were once masterpieces of architecture, screening golden age movies plus witnessing important events. Nowadays, few are still working, while many are ready to be demolished. The best conservation for historic buildings is managing change caused by time. One way to make this happen is smart engaging reuse, thus continue to retain value to current and future generations. Local government and private companies have tried to resuscitate Cairo’s silver screens. This revitalization started with simple face lifting, then developed to rebranding with creative re-use introducing new functions. A key to this creative re-use is across disciplines; new forms of art, music, and media performances. This paper aims to explore four re-use performances bringing the insight of art and media into the field of heritage management. First, “Nassim El Raqs” organized “When dance meets heritage” in Theatre Cinema Eldorado. Second, Radio Theatre re-used to host liveshows; “Al-Bernameg” and “AblaFahita”. Third, Zawya - located in cinema Odeon - launched as the first art-house cinema in Egypt. Last, Teatro Independent Theatre opened their interactive performance “The Metamorphosis” at cinema Elkahira. This paper ends with a framework for rebranding cinemas; comprises both the challenges facing the re-use and proposing community-oriented marketing strategy.



INNOVATIVE URBAN INTERVENTIONS AS AN APPROACH FOR LIVABLE AND SUSTAINABLE CITIES

A. K. ELEWA

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 66, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages 355–378


Cities are the arenas for all human activities, by the middle of this century they will be home to 65 percent of the world’s population, meanwhile they face multidimensional challenges regarding how to balance the needs of its population growth and the environmental requirements, in other words, to be both livable and sustainable cities. Thus, this study argues that urban interventions that based on innovative tools contribute to both sustainability and livability in cities. Innovative urban interventions can contribute positively in the city long-term planning, they represent incremental planning initiatives that seek to regenerate the urban tissue, as well as the study argues that this type of interventions encourages the community engagement in decision making and funding the regeneration plans, moreover it works in harmony with the environmental requirements. This study investigates the potentials of urban interventions in supporting city's livability and sustainability, also to set a broader definition of this type of urban interventions that based on innovative urban tactics. The study based on an analytical study of two practical cases, the findings represent lessons from practice, which reveals how innovative urban interventions have efficient impact as a regeneration approach that boosting both livability and sustainability of the city.



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