Latest Issue: Volume 67,

Issue 5

NEW FRAMEWORK FOR THE PRE-DESIGN STAGE USING STATISTICAL MANAGEMENT

M. S. MESELHY

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 963–980


This paper attempts to enhance the quality level on projects in order to achieve their goals and objectives by applying a statistical management approach. Not many methods are available to create an appropriate road map for selecting designers based on statistical analysis. Therefore, the research attempts to rectify problems at the predesign stage of projects by activating statistical management. The study analyses two statistical methods, Six Sigma methodology and the expected value scenario, and how they may be applied in the construction industry. The research aims to establish a new framework for the pre-design stage using statistical management in order to improve project performance. It uses a scientific path starting with theoretical and analytical studies as the materials and methods. An applied study will present and measure Egypt Air Cafes brand at Assiut International Airport as a pilot case study. It is concluded that the statistical management methodology is highly effective in conducting rational analyses. This methodology is one of the tools of proactive management.


TEMPORARY USES AND REGENERATION OF HISTORIC CONTEXTS THE CASE OF ATTABA MARKET, CAIRO

S. IMAM, D. ELKERDANY, N. HAMZA, A. ALSADATY, T. ELSERAFI and M. ABDALLAH

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 981–999


Recent redevelopment methods consider activities as the core of catalytic regeneration strategies in decaying settings with value. Urban catalysts approaches recently focus on temporary uses in pilot projects. This paper discusses temporary uses and cultural activities impact on urban regeneration strategies, turning old historic market buildings located in contexts of value into social and cultural catalysts to their surrounding contexts. The methodology includes three parts: the first part discusses temporary uses as catalysts in contexts of value, the strategies adopted to turn historic markets into social and cultural catalysts, and the role of different stakeholders in temporary uses strategies. The second part reviews an Egyptian 19th century market building "Attaba vegetable market" as a potential catalyst in Attaba historic district facing heavy urban growth threatening area character. The third part develops an approach to allow experimental and temporary activities to be active in testing residents’ needs and turning an existing historic building through a temporary reuse program into an urban catalyst to its surroundings. The framework proposed consists of a comprehensive flexible program that sets regeneration objectives benefiting the catalytic effect of experimental and temporary activities in pioneer projects and proposes several ways to achieve regeneration goals for different stakeholders.


THE RESTORATIVE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LANDSCAPE DESIGN SETTINGS ON ADULTS: THE CASE OF AL-AZHAR PARK IN CAIRO

H. M. ASSEM, O. S. TOLBA and S. S. ASHOUR

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1001–1018


Egyptians, specifically adults, are prone to many stresses in a demanding daily life. Recently, there has been extensive research on the role of landscape on human wellbeing, compared to the scarcity of empirical research linking landscape and human psychology in Egypt. This research assesses the restorative effect of different landscape designs on adults’ emotions. It examines the theory of Aesthetic and Affective Response to Landscapes in the Egyptian context by comparing two landscape settings of different visual design properties in terms of their effect on adults’ emotions. A quasi-experimental, causal-comparative case-studies approach was conducted on a sample of adult participants who were taken for a led-park walk in two spaces in Al-Azhar Park. Data was collected using: visual observation analysis of landscape design qualities of the selected spaces, POMS questionnaire for assessing emotions, and a landscape preference questionnaire. The data was analyzed quantitatively to indicate the impact of different landscape designs on participants’ emotions, and qualitatively to understand user preferences. The findings concluded that the park visit to “space 1” positively affected participants’ emotions more than “space 2” due to its visual landscape design properties. Finally, a matrix linking emotions’ categories, restorative qualities, and elements of each space is presented.


ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS IN DECISION MAKING OF HERITAGE REUSE: SURSOCK PASHA

I. Z. DABOUH and M. EL SHAZLY

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1019–1038


Egyptian heritage is undeniably rich and largely diversified. This heritage is a witness of ancient civilizations and transfer its tremendous values, collective wisdom and memory of the people in the past, which should be documented, interpreted, and conserved for the public. The conservation of traditional residential architecture buildings is crucial in terms of sociocultural continuity. When they are no longer used for residential purpose, new functions should be assigned to them for the continuity of the heritage buildings. The process of selection of new buildings needs to consider different criteria in order to reach the optimum selection. This paper aims to present a suitable evaluation method to figure out the optimum solution using an integrated multi criteria decision making method. The most suitable tool is the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) that was developed by Thomas Saaty in 1970s. The selected software for this paper is Microsoft Excel. Sursock Pasha palace is selected as a case study. There are four suggested alternatives: hotel, museum, office building and mixed use. After using the AHP application, it was concluded that office building is the best choice with the highest value of 0.29 followed by mixed use building, museum, and hotel


A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK TO SUSTAIN HYDROLOGICAL RESOURCES IN EGYPTIAN COASTAL DESERTS

W. A. ABDELLATIF, P. H. A. YOUSEF, M. M. QORQOR and A. A. ELKHOULY

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1039–1058


The research addresses the concept of using hydrological resources in Egyptian coastal deserts, despite their availability, they are wasted and thus an impediment to the stability of urbanization. Hence, the main purpose of the research is how to reach an integrated methodological framework for the sustainability of hydrological resources in coastal deserts that will utilize these resources and be suitable for the autonomy of coastal deserts. This methodological framework is divided into three main axes: sustainable supply of water resources, their uses, and demand. The interactions between the three main axes in the methodological framework and relationship to the sustainability process has been studied; finally, the appropriate methodological framework will be determined. The main research result was identifying multiple aspects of sustainability resulting from the conducted methodological framework and the diversity of the developmental returns of sustainability on urban, environmental, economic and social benefits.


INTEGRATING THE RISK FACTOR WITHIN THE VALUE ENGINEERING EQUATION IN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS

A. OTHMAN and A. F. MOHAMED

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1059–1076


Both Value Engineering (VE) and Risk Management (RM) are effective tools for architectural project management. Eventually, the value engineering outputs provide recommended VE proposals or alternatives for a specific material or system; based on its quality and cost, while risk management provides analysis for the impact of the project risks by identifying the probability and impact of each single expected risk that might affect the project. The integration of both tools is necessary to benefit from both outputs simultaneously. The previous integration approaches have provided an integration protocol and methodology, but they have missed the mathematical attitude. This research aims to fill this gap by suggesting an integral equation that considers the impact of the risk factor associated with each of the value engineering proposals. This risk factor will express the resultant of all expected risk impacts that will affect the VE proposals, if executed, into a newly developed equation. This equation will optimize the selection of the VE proposal based on the accomplished risk impacts in a mathematical approach. The research used structural equation modeling (SEM) as a scientific method to develop the new equation and to study the relationship between its variables.


A PROPOSED MODEL TO MEASURE THE PERFORMANCE OF EGYPTIAN CITIES

H. A. H. El-HALAWANY

Category: Architectural Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1077–1096


With many challenges facing cities, especially at the local level, the development of urban communities requires developing a system based on the extrapolation of urban issues for development programs to be promoted. As a method for activating city development, the city performance indicators have been commonly used at several levels in governments, academic institutions and international agencies. This helps monitor and improve the performance of cities. However, these indicators have neither become standardized nor made comparable among cities, especially at the local level. Thus, there is an urgent need for a unified system for monitoring the performance of cities at the local level based on the measurements of Egyptian cities. Therefore, this research reviews trends of previous studies dealing with measuring and evaluating the performance of cities using indicators. After identifying the most important development issues for Egyptian cities, the developmental variables of different sectors affecting these issues are statistically analyzed. A model is then developed depending on the relative weights of indicators. The model is applied to some Egyptian cities and calibrated by comparing the results with the Human Development Index.


CONSTRUCTION DISPUTES’ NEGOTIATION: DO PERSONALITY AND CONFLICT STYLES MATTER

M. SWELAM, M. El-SAID and A. EL-DOKHMAESY

Category: Civil Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1097–1115


Escalation of construction disputes can cause delays in schedules, loss of money, quality defects and may require lawsuits to resolve them. Negotiation between parties is the first step to resolve disputes and is influenced by many factors among which are the personality traits and the conflict management styles of the negotiators. This paper aims to illustrate Egyptian professional engineers’ behaviors during the negotiation stage; and how this relates to their personality’s traits. Practitioners working in construction projects in Egypt were approached through a web-based questionnaire (7 modules, 162 questions). Correlation analysis, regression analysis, Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) and independent T-test were carried out with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results present “Collaboration– Compromise”, as the most preferred conflict management styles’ methods. “Accommodating and Competing” lead to more satisfaction during construction dispute negotiation. Predominant personalities were found to be “Agreeableness” and “Conscientiousness” indicating that getting along with the other party during negotiation is more important than arguing with them. Agreeableness and Openness to experience personalities and collaboration and compromise conflict management styles from one side are positively correlated with integrative negotiating outcome from the other side. Joint gain solutions are optimal.


STUDY OF THE SEISMIC RESPONSE OF R. C. HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS WITH DOUBLE TRANSFER FLOORS

N. M. AYASH, N. F. HANNA and A. HAMDY

Category: Civil Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1117–1136


In multifunctional high rise buildings; the transfer systems are introduced to redistribute vertical and lateral loads from the discontinued columns in the upper floors to the lower levels of the building. Only high-rise buildings with single level of transfer floor were mostly studied. However, in some cases the architect may require two or more levels of transfer and it is expected to vary the building response; therefore further studies must be focused on these cases. A number of buildings with different altitudes of double transfer floors were analyzed using nonlinear time history technique using 3D finite element models. The global seismic responses of the buildings were evaluated. In addition, the optimum vertical position of the double transfer was investigated to minimize the bad effect of the transfer floor existence. It can be concluded that the worst seismic performance is in case of buildings with the lower altitude and nearer spacing of the double transfer floors also the irregularity arising from the soft story phenomenon is more pronounced. Additionally, as the distance between the double transfer floors increased, the building stiffness was reduced and therefore the soft story irregularity probability was increased.


A NEW MODEL FOR PRODUCTION, INSPECTION, AND MAINTENANCE: MODEL VALIDATION AND CASE STUDY

M. H. GADALLAH, A. ALMOKADEM and M. F. Y. SHALABY

Category: Mechanical Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1137–1156


A model is developed to integrate production planning, preventive maintenance, and process/product quality inspection decisions. The integrated model objective is to minimize the total costs of the three decisions that are subjected to constraints of production availability, preventive maintenance economical limitations, and system reliability constraints. Genetic Algorithms and Mixed Integer Linear Program are utilized to solve such complicated problems with constraints considered. An extensive literature review has been presented. The integration of the production, preventive maintenance, and quality decisions in one integrated model is rare so that further investigations and real case study applications in the industry fields are needed. The proposed model and solution method are compared and validated with four models and methodologies from literature. A case study demonstrates the significant improvements of the model results on a real practical industrial application, which also validates the proposed model.


ENGINEERING EDUCATION: THE IMPORTANCE OF READING IN CULTIVATING STUDENT RESEARCH OUTPUT

I. M. KATAR

Category: Interdisciplinary, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1157–1173


Research is a core activity in the education process and one of the most central assessment tools in grading systems. Sound research demands effective search tools for the collection of required data and the cultivation of output. Although a large amount of research is received from students through a variety of activities during undergraduate education, most lacks precise data and creativity. In a course entitled General Engineering Design, two activities reflecting research value were assigned to students and added to the grading assessment scheme. These activities were also part of an experiment applied to engineering students that explored differences in the performed research. In the first activity, students were requested to give presentations after being provided with a topic and without any additional conditions. In the second, the students were asked to conduct flipped classroom activities on a topic but with a condition: they must read certain selections from their textbook. Grades were collected and analyzed to determine the variances in performance quality. It was clear that reading cultivated the research output shown in the deliverables, highlighting the importance of the neglected practice of reading that is lacking in most of the activities undertaken by the current undergraduate generation.


COMPARISON STUDY FOR EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE

A. SOLIMAN, E. NASSEF, R. ABU ALALA and Y. ELTAWEEL

Category: Chemical Engineering, Volume 67, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 1175–1191


Oil shales are an important source of energy as the world’s energy demand is increasing exponentially. In this study, use of mechanical agitation and ultra-sonication was investigated for the extraction of Quseir’s oil shales by using different solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene, methylene dichloride, methanol and hexane and their yields were determined. Quseir's oil shales were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface imaging techniques such as scanning electron microscope. GC and TGA analyses showed that the oil recovered from oil shale had higher percentages of hydrocarbons in comparison with other oil shale resources. THF, toluene and mixture of methylene dichloride with hexane resulted in better oil yields in comparison with hexane and methanol. In addition, 4 h of agitation time, 0.8 mm particle size of oil shale and 2:1 ratio of oil at refluxing conditions to solvent resulted in better yields in the mechanical agitation method. On the other hand, ultra-sonication yields results were superior up to 73% using THF in 15 min at ambient temperature. This showed that low frequency ultrasonication is superior to the traditional mechanical stirring methods.


Volume 67, Issue 5 October 2020

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